Main Article Content

Abstract

This study was conducted to describe the waste management practices and carbon footprint among households of Senior High School students of Regional Science High School for Region VI. A 22-item checklist questionnaire for the level of waste management practices and a 9-item questionnaire adapted and modified from the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) 2013's 2006 IPCC Guidelines were used to collect information on waste management practices and level of carbon footprint of the respondents. Data were gathered and analyzed using the weighted mean. The results showed that the level of waste management practices among Senior High School students of Regional Science High School for Region VI in three sub-variables combined; namely, recycling, composting, and open burning was "Highly Practiced." Among the waste management practices, "Open burning" has the highest mean on Grade 11 respondents; meanwhile, "Recycling" has the highest mean on Grade 12 respondents with a level of waste management practice both labeled as "Very Highly Practiced." The level of carbon footprint among households of Senior High School students of Regional Science High School for Region VI was "Uncertain" because of an uncertain mean for the Grade 11 students.

Keywords

Waste management Carbon footprint Recycling Composting Open burning

Article Details

How to Cite
Murillo, S. C. M., Villanueva, M. C. A. E., Tamayo, K. I. M., Apolinario, M. J. V., Lopez, M. J. D., & Edd. (2021). Waste Management Practices and Carbon Footprint among Households of Senior High School Students of Regional Science High School for Region VI. CENTRAL ASIAN JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL THEORY AND COMPUTER SCIENCES, 2(8), 9-19. Retrieved from http://cajmtcs.centralasianstudies.org/index.php/CAJMTCS/article/view/93

References

  1. [1]. Abbey, N. (2019, April 12). Boracay – new ways, new days. Daily Guardian. 12-13. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/339938334_Solid_Waste_Disposal_Practices_of_the_Atis_Aeta_of_Boracay. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  2. [2]. Adogu, P. O. U., Uwakwe, K. A., Egenti, N. B., Okwuoha, A. P., & Nkwocha, I. B. (2015). Assessment of waste management practices among residents of Owerri municipal state Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Protection, 06(05), 446–456. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2015.65043. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  3. [3]. Agarwal, D., Gupta, AK., & Agarwal, MK. (2012) Analysis of effective solid waste management strategies in major cities of Uttar Pradesh in India. Journal of Pure and Applied Science and Technology, 2(1), 2249-9970. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/310166759_Analysis_of_effective_solid_waste_management_strategies_in_major_cities_of_Uttar_Pradesh_in_India. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  4. [4]. Ahluwalia, I. J., & Patel, U. (2018, May 20). Solid Waste Management in India: An Assessment of Resource Recovery and Environmental Impact. Think Asia. Retrieved from: https://think-asia.org/handle/11540/8143. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  5. [5]. Arvanitoyannis, I. (2013). Waste management for polymers in food packaging industries. Plastics Design Libraries, 249-310. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-4557-3112-1.00014-4. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  6. [6]. Avcioglu A, Turker U, Atasoy Z, Kocturk D, (2011) Renewable Energies of Agricultural Origin, Biofuels. Nobel, Ankara Turkey. Journal of International Environmental Application and Science, 439. Retrieved from: https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jie. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  7. [7]. Bacinschi, Z., Rizescu, C., Valentina, S., & Necula, C. (2010, July). Waste management practices used in the attempt to protect the environment. ResearchGate. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262323926_Waste_management_practices_used_in_the_attempt_to_protect_the_environment. Retrieved on: January 22, 2021.
  8. [8]. Berners-Lee, M. (2019). There is no planet b (a handbook for the make or break years) (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108545969. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  9. [9]. Boldrin, A., Andersen, J. K., Møller, J., Christensen, T. H., & Favoino, E. (2009). Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions. Waste Management & Research, 27(8), 800–812. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1177/0734242x09345275. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  10. [10]. Bogner, J., Pipatti, R., Hashimoto, S., Diaz, C., Mareckova, K., Diaz, L., Kjeldsen, P., Monni, S., Faaij, A., Qingxian Gao, Tianzhu Zhang, Mohammed Abdelrafie Ahmed, Sutamihardja, R., & Gregory, R. (2008). Mitigation of global greenhouse gas emissions from waste: Conclusions and strategies from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment Report. Working group III (mitigation). Waste Management & Research: The Journal for a Sustainable Circular Economy, 26(1), 11–32. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1177/0734242x07088433. Retrieved on June 19, 2021.
  11. [11]. Burgos, N. P. (2017, May 19). New DENR chief to monitor water, waste in Boracay. INQUIRER.net. Retrieved from: https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/897711/new-denr-chief-to-monitor-water-waste-in-boracaynSPhZNxnRkAY97BT&cf=1. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  12. [12]. Byjus.com (n.d.). Biodegradable and non-biodegradable. Retrieved from: https://byjus.com/chemistry/biodegradable-and-non-biodegradable/. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  13. [13]. Cheng, H., Zhang, Y., Meng, A., & Li, Q. (2007). Municipal solid waste fueled power generation in China: a case study of waste-to-energy in Changchun City. Environmental Science & Technology, 41(21), 7509–7515. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1021/es071416g. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  14. [14]. Cifrian, E., Andres, A., & Viguri, J. R. (2012). Estimating monitoring indicators and the carbon footprint of municipal solid waste management in the region of Cantabria, Northern Spain. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 4(2), 271–285. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-012-9150-6. Retrieved on: May 19, 2021.
  15. [15]. Desa, A., Kadir, N. B.’. A., & Yusooff, F. (2011). A study on the knowledge, attitudes, awareness status and behaviour concerning solid waste management. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 18, 643–648. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.05.095. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  16. [16]. Desa, A., Abd Kadir, N. B., & Yusooff, F. (2012). Environmental awareness and education: A key approach to solid waste management (SWM) – a case study of a university in Malaysia. Waste Management - An Integrated Vision, 34. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.5772/48169. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  17. [17]. Dolipas, B., Ramos, J. L., Alimondo, M., & Madinno, C. (2018). Waste handling practices and values of university student. Athens Journal of Health, 5(3), 213–232. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.30958/ajh.5-3-3. Retrieved on: May 21, 2021.
  18. [18]. Ecological Solid Waste Management Act, Rep. Act 9003. (2000). Lawphil. Retrieved from: https://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2001/ra_9003_2001.html. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  19. [19]. Enete, I. C. (2010). Potential impacts of climate change on solid waste management in Nigerian. Journal of sustainable development in Africa. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 12, 101–103. Retrieved from: http://www.jsd-africa.com/Jsda/Vol12No8_Winter2010_B/PDF/Potential%20Impacts%20of%20Climate%20Change%20on%20Solid%20Waste.pdfwjE9b-Y4KnuAhUxyYsBHXHQC0sQFjAAegQIARAB&usg=AOvVaw3p0ajcOOufGCaclS98AMTe. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  20. [20]. Environmental Management Bureau [EMB]. (2018). 3. Solid Wastes [PDF]. Retrieved from: https://emb.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/3-Solid-Waste-1.8.pdf. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  21. [21]. European Commission (2020). Biodegradable waste. Retrieved from: https://ec.europa.eu/environment/topics/waste-and-recycling/biodegradable-waste_en#:~:text=Bio-waste%20is%20defined%20as,waste%20from%20food%20processing%20plants.&text=It%20also%20excludes%20those%20by,production%20that%20never%20become%20waste. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  22. [22]. Farrington, D., Lunt, J., Davies, S., Blackburn, R. (2005). Biodegradable and sustainable fibres. Woodland Publishing Series in Textiles. 191-220. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1533/9781845690991.191. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  23. [23]. Friedrich, E., & Trois, C. (2011). Quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from waste management processes for municipalities – a comparative review focusing on Africa. Waste Management, 31(7), 1585–1596. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2011.02.028. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  24. [24]. Guendehou, G., Koch, M., Hockstad, L., Pipatti, R., & Yamada, M. (2006). Incineration and open burning of waste. IPCC Guidelines National Greenhouse Gases Inventory, 5(5), 1–26. Retrieved from: http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/pdf/5_Volume5/V5_5_Ch5_IOB.pdf. Retrieved on: June 19, 2021.
  25. [25]. Gustavsson, J., Cederberg, C., Sonesson, U., Otterdijk, R., & Mcybeck, A. (2011). Global food losses and food waste: Extent, causes and prevention. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/298436135_Global_food_losses_and_food_waste_extent_causes_and_prevention_Food_and_Agriculture_Organization_of_the_United_Nations. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  26. [26]. Henriksson , P., Heijungs, R., Dao, H., Phan, L., de Snoo, G., & Guinée, J. (2015). Product carbon footprints and their uncertainties in comparative decision contexts. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121221. Retrieved on: May 20, 2021.
  27. [27]. Hertwich, E. G., Hammitt, J. K., & Pease, W. S. (2000). A theoretical foundation for life‐cycle assessment: Recognizing the role of values in environmental decision making. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 4(1), 13-28. Retrieve from: https://doi.org/10.1162/108819800569267. Retrieved on: May 20, 2021.
  28. [28]. Ishigaki T. (2011). Greenhouse Gas Emission from Solid Waste Disposal Sites in Asia. Retrieved from: https://www.intechopen.com/books/integrated-waste-management-volume-ii/greenhouse-gas-emission-from-solid-waste-disposal-sites-in-asia. Retrieved on: May 12, 2021.
  29. [29]. Kunn, S. (2017, May). A study of undergraduate perception and behavior toward on-campus composting. Digital Commons. Retrieved from: https://digitalcommons.library.umaine.edu/honors/284. Retrieved on: May 18, 2021.
  30. [30]. Laner, D., Crest, M., Scharff, H., Morris, J. W. F., & Barlaz, M. A. (2012). A review of approaches for the long-term management of municipal solid waste landfills. Waste Management, 32(3), 498–512. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2011.11.010. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  31. [31]. Linzner R., & Mostbauer P. (2005): Composting and its impact on climate change with regard to process engineering and compost application; A case study in Vienna. International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313299552_Composting_and_its_impact_on_climate_change_with_regard_to_process_engineering_and_compost_application-A_case_study_in_Vienna. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  32. [32]. Lou, X. F., & Nair, J. (2009). The impact of landfilling and composting on greenhouse gas emissions – a review. Bioresource Technology, 100(16), 3792–3798. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.12.006. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  33. [33]. Luthra, A. (2017) Waste-to-energy and recycling. Economic & Political Weekly, 52(13), 51. Retrieved from: https://www.epw.in/journal/2017/13/special-articles/waste-energy-and-recycling.html. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  34. [34]. Ma, J., Zhang, L., & Li, A. (2016). Energy-efficient co-biodrying of dewatered sludge and food waste: Synergistic enhancement and variables investigation. Waste Management, 56, 411–422. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2016.06.007. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  35. [35]. Madrigal, D. & Oracion E. (2018). Solid Waste Management Awareness, Attitude, and Practices in a Philippine Catholic Higher Education Institution. Recoletos Multidisciplinary Research Journal. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327177428_Solid_Waste_Management_Awareness_Attitude_and_Practices_in_a_Philippine_Catholic_Higher_Education_Institution. Retrieved on: April 3, 2021.
  36. [36]. Menikpura, N., & Sang-arun, J. (2013). Estimation Tool for Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Management in a Life Cycle Perspective (Version II ed.). Institute for Global Environmental Strategies. Retrieved from: https://www.iges.or.jp/en/pub/ghg-calculator-solid-waste-ver-ii-2013/en. Retrieved on: May 19, 2021.
  37. [37]. New South Wales [NSW] (2005). Environmental benefits of recycling. Retrieved from: https://www.epa.nsw.gov.au. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  38. [38]. Paul, J., Flora, R., Buquiran, M., Palma, J., & Cadiz, L., (2007a). Composting as a suited tool to enhance waste management in rural areas in the Philippines. Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.29638.32328. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  39. [39]. Paul, J., Jaque, D., Kintanar, R., Sipalan, J., & Gallo, R., (2007b). ‘End-of-the-Pipe’ material recovery to reduce waste disposal and to motivate the informal sector to participate in site improvements at the Calajunan dumpsite in Iloilo city, Panay, Philippines. I2007 Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281087703_End-of-the-Pipe_Material_recovery_to_reduce_waste_disposal_and_to_motivate_the_informal_sector_to_participate_in_site_improvements_at_the_Calajunan_Dumpsite_in_Iloilo_City_Panay_Philippines. Retrieved on: January 16, 2021.
  40. [40]. Paul, J. (2010). Waste sources assessment to enhance environmental management systems: Characterization of solid and liquid waste sources and options for environmental enhancements in Bais City, Philippines. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.13873.38247. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  41. [41]. Philippine Clean Air Act, Rep. Act 8749. (1999). Lawphil. Retrieved from https://lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra1999/ra_8749_1999.html. Retrieved on January 20, 2021.
  42. [42]. Privitera, G. J. (2017). Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed.) Chapter 8: Survey and Correlational Design. SAGE Publications, Inc. Retrieved from: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/57732_Chapter_8.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwjBgaqdjeDvAhUCMN4KHS5FCQYQFjAAegQIAxAC&usg=AOvVaw3NGGXbkC42zAbUxb-08VC5. Retrieved on: April 01, 2021.
  43. [43]. Pulles, T., Meijer, J., & Aardenne, J. (n.d.). Estimating uncertainties in ghg emissions from fuel combustion. Retrieved from: https://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/gp/bgp/2_8_Uncertainties_Fuel_Combustion.pdf. Retrieved on: May 20, 2021.
  44. [44]. Rouse J., Rothenberger S., & Zurbrügg C. (2008). Marketing compost – a guide for compost producers in low- and middle-income countries. Eawag and Waste Concern. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/249993496_Marketing_Compost_-_A_Guide_for_Compost_Producers_in_Low_and_Middle-Income_Countries. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  45. [45]. Sage Publications. (2008, February 27). Compost Can Turn Agricultural Soils Into A Carbon Sink, Thus Protecting Against Climate Change. ScienceDaily. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/02/080225072624.htm. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  46. [46]. Salaria, N. (2012). MEANING OF THE TERM- DESCRIPTIVE SURVEY RESEARCH METHOD | Semantic Scholar. Retrieved from: Https://Www.Semanticscholar.Org/Paper/MEANING-OF-THE-TERM-DESCRIPTIVE-SURVEY-RESEARCH-Salaria/B5daa392a693f64d7b9df01b9d429bd839d95059?Sort=relevance. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/MEANING-OF-THE-TERM-DESCRIPTIVE-SURVEY-RESEARCH-Salaria/b5daa392a693f64d7b9df01b9d429bd839d95059?sort=relevance. Retrieved on: July 7, 2021.
  47. [47]. Sarmiento, B. (2018, October 12). Philippines central government on solving plastic trash problem: “we’ve done all we can.” Eco-Business. Retrieved from: https://www.eco-business.com/news/philippines-central-government-on-solving-plastic-trash-problem-weve-done-all-we-can/. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  48. [48]. Schubert, Eike M. (2014), "The Carbon Footprint of Waste Management Systems – Analysis and Comparison of Different Approaches". Open Access Master's Theses. Paper 368. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.uri.edu/theses/368. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  49. [49]. Simmons, A. M. (2016, April 22). The world’s trash crisis, and why many Americans are oblivious. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from: https://www.latimes.com/world/global-development/la-fg-global-trash-20160422-20160421-snap-htmlstory.html. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  50. [50]. Stuart, T. (2009). Waste: Uncovering the global waste scandal. Penguin Books. Retrieved from: https://www.penguin.co.uk/books/565/56500/waste/9780141036342.html. Retrieved on: March 16, 2021.
  51. [51]. Study.com (n.d.). What is composting? Study.com. Retrieved from: https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-composting-definition-and-examples.html. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  52. [52]. Sun, L., Li, Z., Fujii, M., Hijioka, Y., & Fujita, T. (2018). Carbon footprint assessment for the waste management sector: A comparative analysis of China and Japan. Frontiers in Energy, 12(3), 400–410. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11708-018-0565-z. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  53. [53]. Tansengco, M., Herrera, D., Tejano, J., Esguerra R. (2016). Development of a small-scale composter and its application in composting of biodegradable waste generated from a government institution. Asian Journal of Biological and Life Science, 5, 1, 21-27. Retrieved from: https://www.ajbls.com/article/2016/5/1/21-27. Retrieved on: March 16, 2021.
  54. [54]. Tatlonghari, R., & Jamias, S. (2010). Village-level knowledge, attitudes and practices on solid waste management in Sta. Rosa City, Laguna, Philippines. Journal of Environmental Science and Management, 13(1), 35-51. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/298946129_Village-Level_Knowledge_Attitudes_and_Practices_on_Solid_Waste_Management_in_Sta_Rosa_City_Laguna_Philippines. Retrieved on: March 16, 2021.
  55. [55]. The World Bank (2016). Philippines: Modernizing Landfills to Reduce Harmful Methane Emissions. Retrieved from: https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2016/01/21/philippines-modernizing-landfills-to-reduce-harmful-methane-emissions. Retrieved on May 19, 2021.
  56. [56]. Timeforchange.org (n.d.). What is carbon footprint? Retrieved from: https://timeforchange.org/what-is-a-carbon-footprint-definition/. Retrieved on: January 20, 2021.
  57. [57]. United Nations Environment Programme. (2011). Waste: Investing in energy and resource efficiency. UNEP. Retrieved from: http://www.unep.org/greeneconomy/Portals/88/documents/ger/ger_final_dec_2011/Green%20EconomyReport_Final_Dec2011.pdf. Retrieved on: October 21, 2020.
  58. [58]. Uygun S., (2012). Evaluation of the mechanization applications in some compost production facilities in Turkey [Master's Thesis]. Institute of Science. Ankara University. Ankara Turkey. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322831255_Composting_as_a_Waste_Management_Method. Retrieved on: March 16, 2021.
  59. [59]. Waste and Resources Assessment Tool for the Environment [WRATE] (2009). UK Environment Agency. Retrieved from: http://lca.jrc.ec.europa.eu/lcainfohub/tool2.vm?tid=197. Retrieved on: January 22, 2021.
  60. [60]. Wilcox, M. A. (2014). A study of college student attitudes and behaviors related to recycling (Thesis). ScholarWorks. Retrieved from: https://scholarworks.uni.edu/etd/2/. Retrieved on: May 18, 2021.
  61. [61]. Yoshida, H., Clavreul, J., Scheutz, C., & Christensen, T. H. (2014). Influence of data collection schemes on the Life Cycle Assessment of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Water research, 56, 292-303. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.03.014. Retrieved on: May 20, 2021.

Most read articles by the same author(s)